Monday, February 24, 2020
Health Informantion Exchange - Essay Example change information regarding health care services, patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ case histories, patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ advocacy rights, state and federal laws regarding health care, and data integrity. This needs a Ã¢â¬Å"standardized interoperable model that is patient centric, trusted, longitudinal, scalable, sustainable, and reliableÃ¢â¬ (American Health Information Management Association, para.2), and that follows HIM principles. The aim behind the implementation of HIE is to improve the quality of delivery of health care information and services, by ensuring the safety of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ data and accuracy of information being shared. Healthcare costs are also reduced (Utah Health Information Network, para.2), since the system is quick and error prone. Terry (para.2) mentions a report conducted by Doctors Helping Doctors Transform Healthcare and the American College of Physicians, which states that a large number of clinicians believe that HIE will have a good effect on health care delivery, c are coordination, care organizations, medical homes, third-party reporting, incentive programs, practice efficiency, and reduction of healthcare costs. However, the biggest challenge in medical settings is the lack of HIE infrastructure and lack of interoperability between EHRs and other electronic information exchange systems. Terry, Ken. Ã¢â¬Å"Most Doctors Want Health Information Exchange Now.Ã¢â¬ Healthcare Information Week. UBM Tech, 2012. Web. 19 Dec 2012.
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Assisted Suicide - Ramon Sampedro - Essay Example He jumped into the sea and struck his head on the bottom of the sea, making him paralyzed. Ramona Maneiro was involved in the last step of the process of assisted suicide that led to the death of Ramon Sampedro. It is evident that Maneiro had a role and ethical right to facilitate SampedroÃ¢â¬â¢s assisted suicide. In as much as the concept of assisted suicide presents several challenges, it is crucial to acknowledge the importance of adhering to the needs of the victims while adhering to the tenets of the law. Maneiro acted based on love by agreeing to participate in assisted suicide. She noted 7 years later that she acted based on love. Maneiro had a relationship with Sampedro that lasted for many years. After living a bedridden life, Sampedro began struggling for his right to end his life. The only person who could understand his situation and challenges was Maneiro. It is essential to note that Sampedro could not commit suicide by himself because of his quadriplegic condition (M anning 21). Maneiro acted by following the utilitarian and Kantianism principles. The principles of utilitarianism dictate that human actions should lead to happiness (Manning 41). By assisting Sampedro in committing suicide, Maneiro was accomplishing her obligations of ensuring that her fellow human was relieved of pain and suffering that he was experiencing. For 29 years, Sampedro lived a life of suffering following his paralysis. He had to depend on other people for basic human activities and needs. He lived a bedridden life afflicted with an excruciatingly painful and terminal condition that left him permanently incapable of living a dignified human life. In order to assist Sampedro in committing suicide, Maneiro was accomplishing her obligations under utilitarianism. Sampedro looked forward to a life of satisfaction and minimum suffering. However, his quadriplegic state could not let him live such a life. Having lived with Sampedro for many years, Maneiro understood his situati on and experiences. Additionally, Sampedro mercifully begged for an end to his painful life. Maneiro could not turn down these pleas given the fact that she knew him and understood his suffering. It would have been cruel and inhumane for Maneiro to turn down such pleas from a suffering man. According to the requirements for compassion, an individual should cooperate and comply with the pleas of a suffering person. Additionally, Sampedro has moral rights to ask for an end of his life. Additionally, Maneiro has the moral right of helping somebody overcome the suffering in his life. The two individuals have a right to choose freely and not inflict harm in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Sampedro indicated expressly that he wanted an end to his life. The right of free choices included the right to end oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life when necessary. Additionally, a person needs to opt to end his life (Manning 17). In my opinion, Maneiro chose to respect the wishes of Sampedro to end his life. Opponents of t he actions taken by Maneiro argue that the society has a right to protect the life of anybody. This means that Maneiro failed to protect the life of Sampedro. Additionally, they state that Maniero should have played a role in preserving the life of Sampedro. Therefore, assisting Sampedro in committing suicide violates the fundamental roles and duties of respecting and preserving life.Ã This means that a society committed to protect and preserve life should not destroy it (Manning 21).Ã Ã Ã
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Effects of Foreign Direct Investment Essay The possible positive andÃ negative effects of FDIÃ inflows Ing. TomÃ ¡Ã ¡ DudÃ ¡Ã ¡, PhD. Possible positive effects FDI provides capital which is usually missingÃ in the target country Long term capital is suitable for economicÃ development Foreign investors are able to finance theirÃ investments projects better and often cheaper Foreign corporations create new workplaces Possible positive effects FDI bring new technologies that are usuallyÃ not available in the target country. There is empirical evidence that there are spillover effects as the new technologies usually spread beyond the foreign corporations Foreign corporations provide better access toÃ foreign markets Ex. Foreign corporations can provide usefulÃ contacts even for their domestic subcontractors Possible positive effects Foreign corporations bring new know-how andÃ managerial skills into the target country Again, there is a spill-over effects Ã¢â¬â as people leave the corporations they leave with the knowledge and know-howÃ they accumulated Foreign corporations can help to change the economicÃ structure of the target country With a good economic strategy governments can attractÃ companies from promising and innovative sectors Possible positive effects Ã¢â¬Å"Crowding inÃ¢â¬ effect The foreign corporations often bring additionalÃ investors into the target country (ex. their usual subcontractors) Foreign corporations improve the businessÃ environment of the target country Ethical business or rules of conduct Possible positive effects Foreign corporations bring new Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ Ã technologies that help to improve theÃ environmental conditions Foreign corporations usually help increase theÃ level of wages in the target economy Foreign corporations usually have a positiveÃ effects on the trade balance Possible negative effects Foreign corporations may buy a local companyÃ in order to shut it down (and gain monopolyÃ for example) Ã¢â¬Å"Crowding outÃ¢â¬ effect We can see this effect if the foreign corporationsÃ target the domestic market and domesticÃ corporations are not able to compete with theseÃ corporations Possible negative effects Foreign corporations may cut workingÃ positions (privatization deals or MAÃ transactions) Foreign corporations have a tendency to useÃ their usual suppliers which can lead toÃ increased imports (no problem if theÃ production is export driven) Possible negative effects Repatriation of the profits can be stressful on theÃ balance of payments The high growth of wages in foreign corporationsÃ can influence a similar growth in the domesticÃ corporations which are not able to cover this growthÃ with the growth of productivityÃ The result is the decreasing competitiveness of domesticÃ companies Possible negative effects Missing tax revenues If the foreign corporations receive tax holidays orÃ similar provisions The emergence of a dual economy The economy will contain a developed foreignÃ sector and an underdeveloped domestic sector Possible negative effects Possible environmental damageÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Incentive tourismÃ¢â¬
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Characterization of Charlie Gordon from the short story: Flowers for Algernon Charlie Gordon has all his life been mental disabled, but for just as long time wanted to be a geni-ass. One day he is given that opportunity and he agrees to let the doctors operate his brain. Before the operation Charlie is a very friendly man, who only sees the good things in life and trusts everybody. His lack of intelligence makes it impossible for him to see that his best friends are in fact victimizing him. (Report 8, page 117) He canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine things. Ã¢â¬Å"I tryed hard but I stillÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Report 2, page 112) Another important quality he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t got, besides intelligence and imagination, is: Feeling. He is only able to be happy, he can not feel anger and love. One of CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s best qualities is his motivation and what seems like his eternal strive for normal intelligence. After the surgery he slowly becomes more and more intelligent, along with the intelligence his imagination and his ability to have feelings grow. And suddenly he is no longer locked in a perspective where he is only able to see a purple present. Now he has been gifted with a new look on life. He sees present and past and how he has been treated by his Ã¢â¬ËfriendsÃ¢â¬â¢, this leads him to be suspicious of everybody near him. Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to doÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (April 20, page 122) His intelligence reaches new, never known heights and he becomes even more an outsider than he was before, as a retard. And finally heÃ¢â¬â¢s stupid again. I like Charlie Gordon, and I liked him best when he was smart. But if he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been a retard before he became a genius, I guess I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have liked him as much. I think being able to place oneself in anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s position and way of thinking is a great quality to have as a human being.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Medium formulation is an essential stage in the design of fermentation process. Most fermentation media require liquid media, although some solid-substrate fermentations are also operated. Fermentation media must satisfy all the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms and fulfill the technical objectives of the process. There are several stages where media are required in a fermentation process; inoculum (starter culture), propagation steps, pilot-scale fermentations and the main production fermentations.According to Cruger W and Cruger A (1990); on a large scale, the sources of nutrients should be selected to create a medium which should meet as many as many possible of the following criteria: i. It should produce the maximum yield of product or biomass per gm of substrate used. ii. It should produce maximum concentration of product or biomass. iii. It should permit the maximum rate of product formation. iv. There should be the minimum yield of undesired products. v. It shoul d be of a consistent quality and be readily available throughout the year. vi.It should cause minimal problems during media preparation and sterilization. vii. It should cause minimal problems in other aspects of the production process particularly aeration and agitation, extraction, purification and waste treatment. The initial step in media for media formulation is the examination of the overall process on the stoichiometery for growth and product formation. The optimization of a medium should be carried out such that it meets as many as possible of the seven criteria. Different combinations and sequences of process conditions have to be investigated to determine growth conditions (Stanbury P.F and Whitaker A; 1995). Medium optimization can be carried by the classical method, in which one independent variable is changed while keeping all others at a certain level. An aerobic fermentation process may be represented as: Carbon and energy source + Nitrogen source + O2 + other require ments Biomass + products + CO2 + H2O + heat This primarily involves consideration of the input of the carbon and nitrogen sources, minerals and oxygen and their conversion to cell biomass, metabolic products.Based on this information, it should be possible to calculate the minimum quantities of each element required to produce a certain quantity of biomass and metabolite According to Prasanthi V et al (2008); Chlorella vulgaris is a green, spherical, single celled fresh water microalga belongs to the phylum Chlorophyta. As per the study conducted so far it is found that green algae are the highest source of chlorophyll in the plant world and particularly, Chlorella one of the members of green algae is the richest source of chlorophyll which is widely used as a health food and feed supplement.The aim of this work is to design different medium types to evaluate optimization combinations for maximum growth, morphology and pigment content of C. vulgaris. Effect of glucose Three differen t volumes of glucose from apple juice while other variables are kept constant. The volumes that were used are 5g/l, 15g/l and 30g/l. The highest chlorophyll production (12%) was obtained with a glucose concentration of 15g/l. Glucose is used as a carbon source which is required for all biosynthesis leading to reproduction, product formation and cell maintenance. It also serves as the energy source.Carbon requirements may be determined from the biomass yield coefficient (Y), an index of the efficiency of conversion of a substrate into the cellular material: Ycarbon (g/g) = biomass produced (g) __________________ Glucose substrate utilized (g) An increase in glucose concentration of 30g/l resulted in the production of chlorophyll being at a constant this is because all the active sites of the microorganism are occupied and active carrying out biochemical reactions. At low glucose concentration of 5g/l very little biomass (chlorophyll) is obtained and also there is low growth rate.Thus , glucose concentration significantly influences chlorophyll production and microbial growth of the microorganism. Constraints that can be generated include the fact that apple juice not only contains one type of sugar, glucose but also contains other sugars (fructose and sucrose) which the microorganism can either utilise for growth resulting in us not obtaining accurate optimization results and also the other sugars can inhibit the growth of the microorganism. Apple juice also contains soluble pectin these can be difficult to digest hence a reduction in biomass.Effect of nitrogen from defatted soya Nitrogen being important constituent of the cell protein was needed for algal growth, either in combined or in molecular form. It is also a component of proteins nucleic acids some co-enzymes. Industrially important microorganisms can utilize both inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. Inorganic nitrogen may be supplied as ammonium salts, often ammonium sulphate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, or ammonia; these can be used in place of defatted soya. Ammonia can also be used to adjust the pH of the fermentation.As nitrogen deficiency develops the amount of chlorophyll in the cells decreases faster than the nitrogen content in C. vulgaris. Nitrogen is a limiting factor if continually increased it can inhibit the production of chlorophyll. Varying concentrations of nitrogen were used i. e 0. 3g/l, 0,6g/l and 2. 0g/l. At 0. 3g/l little chlorophyll is obtained this is due to the fact that nitrogen being a macronutrient it is required in high concentration. At 0. 6g/l high yields of chlorophyll are obtained and at 2. 0g/l nitrogen turns to be a limiting factor and can lead to culture toxicity.Constraints can be generated when using Ammonia as a substitute for defatted soya this is due to the fact that ammonia leads to high pH which results in a precipitate formation in the medium but lower pH of the medium prevent the precipitation. Foaming in a microbiological proc ess is due to media proteins that become attached to the air-broth interface where they denature to form stable foam. Non-treatment of foam may block air filters, resulting in loss of aseptic conditions. The foam production can be controlled by addition of chemical antifoam. Natural antifoams include plant oils (e. g.Soya, sunflower and rapeseed), hence defatted soya is used as a nitrogen source rather than ammonia. Also high concentrations of ammonium ions can be toxic to cells of the microbe. Effect of Mg2+ MgSO4 can be used as the source of magnesium. It promotes the maximum growth of the present alga and it is also incorporated as an enzyme co-factor component of chlorophyll. Three salt concentrations were used 0. 1g/l; 0. 5g/l and 1g/l. At low salt concentration of 0. 1g/l it results in a magnesium deficiency which interrupted cell division in Chlorella which results in abnormally large cell formation. Increase in salt concentration of 0. g/l and 1g/l of magnesium alone in the medium resulted in higher cell number, although increase in nitrogen alone did not make much difference that means cells need magnesium to synthesize chlorophyll. The process of multiplication requires a larger concentration of magnesium in the medium than does the production of cell material. Iron uptake is strictly required to optimize the process. References 1). Crueger W and Crueger A. 1990. A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology. Oxford. Panima Publishing Corporation. 2). Stansbury P. F and Whitaker A . 1995. Principles of fermentation technology. New York. Pergamon Press. 3).Prasanthi V, Yugandhar M. N, Vuddaraju S. P, Nalla K. K, Raju C. A. I and Donthireddy S. R. R. Optimization of the fermentation media using statistical approach and artificial neural networks for the production of chlorophyll by Chlorella vulgaris. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2008. 2 (3): 51-56 CHINHOYI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY NAME: Ngara Tanyaradzwa R REG NUMBER: C1110934J C OURSE: Process Optimization and Production COURSE CODE: CUBT 208 PROGRAM: BSBIO Level 2:2 Assignment: 1 Lecturer Dr Zvidzai
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Title: Are the colours of MMÃ¢â¬â¢s evenly distributed in a bag of MMÃ¢â¬â¢s? Purpose of Project / Aim: Probability is an educated thought or guess to determine if a particular event will occur. Probability is important to assist in making and predicting everyday decisions; the probability that a child will be born with sickle cell disease or the probability that crops will die are all important for the human survival. The use of MMÃ¢â¬â¢s is to substitute for the examples listed above to examine probability considering they are used in everyday life and are therefore readily accessible. When individuals consume MMÃ¢â¬â¢s, they indentify particular colours and this can be related to probability. Calculating the probability of a particular colourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Standard deviation = 10.1 Based on the calculations, the standard deviations observed did not support my theory of the standard deviation being close to zero but it supported the theory that there was not even distribution of MMÃ¢â¬â¢s. It was expected that larger data would be closer to zero, however
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Carolyn Godfrey English 101 Ms. Lazzo 10/26/2010 Theories of how Life on Earth began We certainly know that our universe exists, however, this knowledge alone has not satisfied mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s quest for further understanding. Our curiosity has led us to question our place in this universe and furthermore, the place of the universe itself. Throughout time we have asked ourselves questions such as: How did our universe began? How old is our universe? How did matter come to exist? Obviously, the search for clues has not ceased. Yet, after all this energy has been expanded, much of what we know is still only speculation. We have however, come a long way from the mystical beginnings of the study of cosmology and the origins of the universe. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In a nutshell, as random genetic mutations occur within an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic code, the beneficial mutations are preserved because they aid survivalÃ¢â¬âa process known as Ã¢â¬Å"Natural Selection.Ã¢â¬ These beneficial mutations are passed on to the next generation. Overtime, beneficial mutations accumulate and the result is an entirely different organism, not just a variation of the original, but an entirely different creature. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution became a theory in crisis when advances were made in molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics over the past fifty years. We now know that there are in fact tens of thousands of irreducibly complex systems on the cellular level. Specified complexity pervades the microscopic biological world. Molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote. Ã¢â¬Å"Although the tiniest bacterial cells are incredibly small weighing less than 10 grams, each is in effect a veritable microminiaturized factory contains thousands of exquisitely designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, made up together of one hundred thousand million atoms far more complicated than any machinery built by man and absolutely without parallel in the non-living world. We do not need a microscope to observe irreducible complexity. The eye, the ear and the heart are examples of irreducible complexity, though they were not recognized as such in DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s day. Nevertheless, Darwin confessed, Ã¢â¬Å"To suppose that the eye with all itsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Popular Theories of the Origns of Life on Earth852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLife began in the Ocean The Big Bang theory is currently the most prevailing theory that explains the formation of Earth roughly 13 billion years ago. 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